Samuwar ƙagaggun littattafan Hausa na farko-farko

Mutane 441 sun karanta wannan labari.

A makalar da ta gabata, mun kawo muku bayanin masana game da rubutun zube da kuma matakai daban-daban wanda ka’idojin rubutun Hausa suka bi kafin su kai ga yadda suke a yanzu. Mun tsaya a inda muka ce zamu kawo muku tarihin irin gudumawar da marubutan farko suka bayar, musamman Turawa wajen tubuta littattafai.

Tarihin rubuce-rubuce na ƙagaggun littattafai bai daɗe ba sosai idan an kwatanta shi da tarihin wanzuwar waƙoƙin baka da rubutattun waƙoƙi. Yayin da su waƙoƙi suka sami gatanci tun shigowar addinin Musulunci ƙasar Hausa ake amfani da su wajen yaɗa addinin, su kuwa Ƙagaggun littattafai sai bayan da Turawa suka shigo ƙasashenmu na Afirka ta Yamma ne suka fara samuwa, A rubuce-rubucen Turawan farko waɗanda suka shigo bincike da yaɗa addinin Kirista, kamar su J,F. Schon, babu wani littafi da ya yi kama da ƙagaggun littafi (Novel) idan aka dubi yadda Yahya (1988:) ya kawo su kamar haka:

Sunan Mawallafi       Shekarar        Sunan Littafi

Schon J.F                    (1841)            Address to the Chiefs and Peoples Africa (in Hausa) Cape Coast

Schon J.F                    (1843)            Vocabulary of Hausa Language.

Schon J.F                    (1848)            Premier of the Hausa Language, Watts London.

Schon J.F                    (1857)            Farawa Letafin Magana Hausa, Berlin.

Schon J.F                    (1857)            The gospel according to St. Mathew (translated into Hausa) B.F.B.S. London

Schon J.F                    (1858)            Letafen Musa Nafari, B.F.B.S. London.

Schon J.F                    (1858)            Letafen Musa Nabi’u B.F.B.S. London.

Schon J.F                    (1862)            Grammar of the Hausa Language, CMS. London.

Schon J.F                    (1876)            Dictionary of the Hausa Language C.M.S. London

Schon J.F                    (1877)            Hausa Reading Book C.M.S. London.

Schon J.F                    (1877)            Labari Nagari C.M.S. London

Schon J.F                    (1880)            Letafe Na Alwasi Sabo C.M.S. London

Schon J.F                    (1885)            Magana Hausa S.P.C.L. London.

Schon J.F                    (1886)            African Proverbs, Tales and Historical Fragments (Hausa Texts), S.P.C. London (Yahiya, 1988:77).

Waɗannan su ne jerin littattafan da Schon J.F ya rubuta cikin Hausa. Amma littafin Schon na 1857 mai suna Farawa Letafen Magana Hausa, shi ne littafin Hausa na farko na zube cikin boko. To amma kuma duk cikin littattafan babu wanda ya yi kama da ƙagaggen labari wato (Novel) a ciki, sai dai bugun ƙarshe na (1886) wanda ya taɓo tatsuniyoyi. Littattafan yawanci jigonsu na yaɗa addinin Kinista ne.

Wani nau’i na rubuce-rubuce cikin Hausa na zube bayan wanda Schon ya yi su ne na Turawa ‘yan mulkin mallaka kamar haka:

Sunan Mawallafi       Shekarar        Sunan Littafi

Edgar F.                      (1911)              Tatsuniyoyi Na Hausa. London

Fletcher, R.S.              (1912)             Hausa Saying and Folklore London.

Rattray, R. S.              (1913)             Hausa Folklore, Oxford

Trenicarne A.J, N.      (1913)             Hausa Superstition and Customs, London.

Whittings E.E.J.          (1914)             Hausa And Fulani Proverbs, Lagos.

Yunƙurin haɓaka samuwar ƙagaggaun littattafai na Hausa

Bayan Turawa ‘yan mulkin mallaka sun yi waɗannan rubuce-rubucen a cikin zube na Hausa, sai kuma lokacin da aka kakkafa makarantun boko a Jihar Arewa. An kafa makarantar farko a lardin Sakkwato a 1905 a ƙarƙashin shugabancin wani Bature, Mr. Burden, to amma sai talakawa suka ƙi kai ‘ya’yansu don gudun kada ‘ya’yansu su zama Kiristoci, saboda haka sai aka rufe ta. Sai a 1909 Gwamna Lugard ya sa Mr. Harns Vischer wato (Ɗan Hausa) ya kuma buɗe wata makarantar a Kano. Lokacin da aka buɗe wannan makaranta ba a sami wani littafin koyar da Hausa ba sai Frank Edgar ya buga littafinsa mai suna Tatsuniyoyi na Hausa a (1911). Shi wannan littafi a Ingila aka buga shi sannan har zuwa 1920 ana amfani da shi wajen koyar da Hausa.

A cikin wannan shekarar ne ta 1920 kuma aka kafa Hukumar Fassara wato ‘Translation Bureau’, wannan hukuma ta samar da littattafan karatu kamar haka: Alfu Laila Wa Laila, na Larabci zuwa Hausa wato Dare Dubu Da Ɗaya. Littafin ya ƙunshi hiƙayoyi ne na Larabawa. Sannan hukumar ta wallafa littattafai guda biyu; wato Labaran Hausawa Da Makwabtansu, wannan ya ƙunshi tarihin ƙasashen Hausa ne da yaƙe-yaƙen  da suka gudana tsakaninsu.

Sai kuma Labaru Na Da Da Na Yanzu wanda ya ƙunshi sana’o’i da al’adu na Hausawa tare da tatsuniyoyi.(Mukhtar, 2002).

Gasar samar da ƙagaggun littattafai na Hausa

A cikin 1933 ne Daraktan Ilmi na jihar arewa, Hanns Visher ( Ɗan Hausa) ya ƙaddamar da wani shiri na gudanar da gasar rubuta ƙagaggun labarai don samar da littattafan hira na labarai na rubutun zube, sai aka ɗora nauyin gudanar da gasar ga hukumar Talifi wanda Dr. East ya ke shugabanta.

Nan da nan sai ya zagaya manyan garuruwa yana saduwa da malamai masu gaurayen ilmi zamani da na Arabiya yana yi musu bayanin irin littattafan da ake so su rubuta, bisa ƙa’idar cewa duk wanda ya ƙago wani labari a rubuce za a karɓa a shirya a buga domin a sami abin karantawa, kuma za a ba shi goro. Wannan bayani na Dr. East ya jawo hankalin malamai da dama suka wallafa littattafai suka aika domin shiga wannan gasar. Waɗanda suka yi nasara aka zaɓi labarun da suka rubuta su biyar ne kamar haka:

  1. Malam Abubakar Imam ya rubuta Ruwan Bagaja
  2. Malam Bello Kagara ya rubuta Gandoki
  3. Malam Abubakar Tafawa Ɓalewa ya rubuta Shehu Umar
  4. Malam Muhammadu Gwarzo ya rubuta Idon Matambayi
  5. Malam Ahmadu Ingawa ya rubuta Ilya Ɗanmaiƙarfi

Cikin waɗannan jerin littattafai, littafin Malam  Abubakar Imam Ruwan Bagaja ya ja hankalin masu gudanar da gasar suka kai ga neman ya zo zariya ya zauna yana aiki tare da su a hukumar Talifi. (Yahaya, 1988).

Gudumawar Hukumomi da kamfanoni wajen samar da ƙagaggun littattafai na Hausa

NORLA

A cikin shekarar 1953 Gwamnatin Jihar Arewa ta kafa wannan Hukuma ta NORLA, wato Northern Region Literature Agency, ta bai wa wannan hukuma Alhaji Abubakar Imam ya gudanar da azuzuwan yaƙi da jahilci da kuma samar da littattafai don waɗannan azuzuwan. A ɓangaren rubutun zube an sami littattafai kamar su;

  1. Hali Zanen Dutse na Sarkin Musulmi Alhaji Abubakar na III
  2. Littafin Addini na Alhaji Halliru Binji
  3. Tarihin Fulani na Wazirin Sakkwato Alhaji Junaidu
  4. Littafin Mamaki na Abduliahi Makarfi
  5. Littafin Mafarki na Muntaka Kumasi
  6. Motsi Ya Fl Zama na Malam Aminu Kano, da sauransu.

NNPC

Ita kuma wannan hukuma ta NNPC, wato Northern Nigerian Publishing Company, daga cikin irin littattafan da kamfanin ya samar da farko-farkonsa akwai irin su:

  1. Nagari Na Kowa na Jabiru Abdullahi.
  2. Tauraruwa Mai Wutsiya na Umaru Dembo da sauransu.

Bayan haka hukumar NNPC ta sa gasa ta ƙagaggun labarai a cikin shekara ta (1981) inda ta buga uku daga cikin waɗanda suka yi nasara kamar haka:

  1. So Aljannar Duniya na Hafsatu Abdulwaheed
  2. Ahmadi Na Malam Amah, na Magaji Ɗanbatta
  3. Mallakin Zuciyata, na Sulaiman Ibrahim Katsina.

Kamfanin Gaskiya (1945)

Sai kamfanin Gaskiya wanda ana shi gudumawar ya buga littattafai na zube masu dama irin su:

  1. Ikon Allah na Dr. R.M. East da Alhaji Abubakar Imam,
  2. Kyaftin Makama na Abdulkadir Makama,
  3. Zamanin Nan Namu na EM. Rimmer da Ahmadu Ingawa,
  4. Bala Da Babiya na Nuhu Bamalli
  5. Mango Park Mabuɗin Kwara na Alhaji Nuhu Bamalli
  6. Yawon Duniya Haji Baba Alhaji Abubakar Tunau Mafara ya (fassara)

Haka kuma baya ga waɗannan kamfanoni da hukumomi an sami wallafe-wallafe da dama a cikin shekarun 1970, misali:

  1. Littafin Abdullahi Ka’oje mai suna Dare Ɗaya wanda aka buga a (1973),
  2. Littafin Abdulkadir Dangambo mai suna Kitsen Rogo wanda aka buga a (1978) da dai sauransu.

Hukumar Al’adu

A cikin shekara ta 1982 Hukumar Al’adu ta Tarayya wato “Federal Department of Culture” ta yi hoɓɓasa inda ta shirya gasa ta ƙagaggun littattafai na Hausa inda ta buga wasu littattafan waɗanda suka yi nasara kamar baka:

  1. Turmin Danya na Sulaiman Ibrahim Katsina.
  2. Tsumagiyar Kan Hanya na Musa Muhammad Bello.
  3. Ƙarshen Alewa Kasa na Bature Gagare.
  4. Zaɓi Naka na Munir Mamman Katsina.

Baya ga waɗannan kuma a 1984 wata al’adar rubuce-rubuce na ƙagaggun littattafai ta sake kunno kai wadda aka sa wa suna “Adabin Kasuwar Kano” wadda a turance ake ƙira “Kano Market Literature”. An sami wani jigo na soyayya inda ya yi tasiri sosai da sosai a cikin wannan adabin. Daga cikin waɗanda suka share fage akwai irin su littafln:

  1. Rabin Raina littafi na ɗaya (1984) na Talatu Wada Ahmed
  2. Soyayya Gamon Jini (1986) na Ibrahim Hamza Abdullahi
  3. In Da Rai (1987) na Idris Imam
  4. Buduruwar Zuciya (1987) na Balanaba Ramat Yakubu
  5. Kogin Soyayya (1988) na A. M. Zahraddeen
  6. Idan So Cuta Ne (l989) na Yusuf M. Adamu. (Muktar, 2002)

Bayan wannan an sami mace a karon farko wacce ta yi fice a cikin rubutun adabi na Hausa inda ta rubuta Ƙagaggun littattafai a ƙalla sama da guda ashirin (20) a cikin shekaru huɗu rak. Wannan kuwa ita ce uwargida Bilkisu Salisu Ahmed Funtuwa, wadda kafin ta yi aure ake ƙira Bilkisu Ibrahim Nabature Funtuwa. Ga wasu daga cikin irin waɗannan rubuce-rubuce nata kamar haka:

  • Allura Cikin Ruwa, (1995) Gidan Dabino Publishers Kano,Nijeriya.
  • Sa’adatu Sa’ar Mata (b. kw)
  • Sirrin ɓoye littafina 1-2(1996) City Publishers Jakara Kano,Nigenia
  • Ƙarya Fure Take littafina 1-2 (1996) NabilaSurayya Bookshop.
  • Gaskiya Na Mafaɗinta littafi na 1-2 (1997) Printed
  • Kyan Ɗan Maciji littafi na 1-2 (1997) Printed
  • In Da Kwaɗayi littafi na 1-2 (1998).
  • Ki Yarda Da Ni (b. kw) littafi na 1-2
  • Maryamu (1999) littafi na 1-2
  • Mugun Zama (1999) littafi na 1-2 Anti Bilki Bookshop Kano.
  • Wa Ya San Gobe littafi ia 1-3 (1996) City Pulishers Jakara. Kano,Nijeriya.

Don ganin jerin littattafan da aka rubuta kamar yadda ya zo a Yahaya (1988), sai ku duba wannan makala.

Kammalawa

Wannan aiki da aka gabatar kan tarihin samuwar ƙagaggun labarai na Hausa, bayan bincike da aka yi cikin wannan aikin an fahinci cewa, an samu ƙagaggun labarai ne tun kafin zuwan Turawan mulkin mallaka da kuma bayan zuwansu, sannan binciken ya yi bayani kan yadda aka fara samun rubutu cikin Hausa da waɗanda suka samar da shi. Kafin hakan, mun rigaya kuma mun yi bayani akan ma’anar rubutun zube (ƙagaggen labari) da irin gwagwarmayar da maluma suka yi wajen ƙoƙarin tabbatar da shi.

Manazarta

Mukhtar, I. (2002) Jagoran Nazarin Ƙagaggun Labarai. Zaria: Benchmark Publishers Limited.

Gusau, S.M (2008) Dabarun Nazarin Adabin Hausa: Kaduna: Fisbas Media Service.

Yahaya, I.Y. (1988) Hausa A Rubuce: Tarihin Rubuce-Rubuce Cikin Hausa: Ibadan: University Press Plc.

Yahaya, I.Y. da wasu (1992) Darussan Hausa: Don Makarantun Sakandare 2. Ibadan: University Press Plc

Wanda ya rubuta: Lawi Yusuf Maigidan Sama, daga Jalingo, Najeriya

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